国际兽医癫痫工作组共识建议:欧洲犬癫痫的药物治疗丨溴丨翻译节选

<img data-src="
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GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘df4a98e195c1e44…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘df4a98e195c1e44…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘df4a98e195c1e44…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘df4a98e195c1e44…’)
#22 {main}” width=”629″ height=”357″>

国际兽医癫痫工作组共识建议:欧洲犬癫痫的药物治疗

Sofie F.M. Bhatti1*, Luisa De Risio2 , Karen Mu~nana3 , Jacques Penderis4 , Veronika M. Stein5 , Andrea Tipold5 , Mette Berendt6 , Robyn G. Farquhar7 , Andrea Fischer8 , Sam Long9 , Wolfgang L”oscher10, Paul J.J. Mandigers11, Kaspar Matiasek12, Akos Pakozdy13, Edward E. Patterson14, Simon Platt15, Michael Podell16, Heidrun Potschka17, Clare Rusbridge18,19 and Holger A. Volk20

翻译 By @苏苏苏苏乔

校正 By @宠物神经科医生高健

Bromide 溴

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GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘8b796e69604cc88…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘8b796e69604cc88…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘8b796e69604cc88…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘8b796e69604cc88…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Efficacy 作用效果

Br is usually administered as the potassium salt (KBr).The sodium salt form (NaBr) contains more Br per gram of compound, therefore, the dose should be approximately 15 % less than that calculated for KBr [124]. In most EU countries, KBr is approved only for add-on treatment in dogs with epilepsy drug-resistant to firstline AED therapy. PB and KBr have a synergistic effect and add-on treatment with KBr in epileptic dogs improves seizure control in dogs that are poorly controlled with PB alone [46, 93, 126]. A recent study showed that KBr was less efficacious and tolerable than PB as firstline drug [10]. According to Charalambous et al. (2014) [17] there is fair level of evidence for recommending the use of KBr as a monotherapy, but less as adjunct AED.

溴通常作为钾盐(KBr)使用。钠盐形式(NaBr)每克化合物含有更多的溴,因此,剂量应比溴化钾计算出的剂量少约15%[124]。在大多数欧盟国家,溴化钾仅获批准用作一线抗癫痫药物治疗产生耐药性的癫痫犬的附加治疗。苯巴比妥和溴化钾具有协同效应(synergistic effect),在癫痫犬中加用溴化钾治疗可以改善单独使用苯巴比妥控制不佳的犬的抽搐发作[46,93,126]。最近的一项研究表明,溴化钾作为一线药物的疗效和耐受性不如苯巴比妥 [10]。Charalambous等人(2014年)[17]认为,推荐使用溴化钾单一用药治疗的证据相当多,但作为辅助抗癫痫药物的证据较少。

<img data-src="
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GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘3202e68534a4d6e…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘3202e68534a4d6e…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘3202e68534a4d6e…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘3202e68534a4d6e…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Pharmacokinetics

药代动力学

The bioavailability of Br after oral administration in normal dogs is approximately 46 %. The elimination half-life is long and ranges from 25-46 days in dogs, consequently, it can take several months (approximately 3 months) before steady-state concentrations after treatment initiation at maintenance dose are reached [46, 67, 90, 125]. KBr is unbound to plasma proteins and can diffuse freely across cellular membranes. KBr is not metabolised in the liver and is therefore a good alternative in dogs with hepatic dysfunction. KBr is excreted unchanged in the urine and undergoes tubular reabsorption in competition with chloride. Therefore, dietary factors affecting chloride levels can alter serum KBr concentrations [123]. High (low) dietary chloride concentrations increase (decrease) the excretion of KBr and shorten (prolong) its half-life. Dogs administered KBr should be maintained on a constant diet (and chloride intake) to prevent fluctuations in serum KBr concentrations, which could result in therapeutic failure or toxicity. If dietary changes are necessary they should be made gradually (over at least 5 days) and serum concentrations of KBr should be monitored following dietary changes, especially if the dog becomes sedated or has unexpected seizures. On biochemistry profiles serum chloride concentrations are often falsely elevated (“pseudohyperchloraemia”) because the assays cannot distinguish between chloride and Br ions [123].

正常犬口服给药后溴化物的生物利用度约为46%。在犬体内,清除半衰期很长,范围为25-46天,因此,在以维持剂量开始治疗后,可能需要几个月(约3个月)才能达到稳态浓度[46,67,90,125]。溴化钾不与血浆蛋白结合,可以自由地穿过细胞膜扩散。溴化钾不会在肝脏中代谢,因此对于肝功能障碍的犬来说是一个很好的选择。溴化钾以不变的形式随尿液排出,与氯化物竞争,经肾小管重吸收。因此,影响氯化物水平的饮食因素可以改变血清溴化钾浓度[123]。饮食中氯浓度的高(低)会增加(减少)溴化钾的排泄并缩短(延长)其半衰期。给予溴化钾的犬应该保持固定的饮食(和氯化物摄入量),以防止血清溴化钾浓度的波动,这可能导致治疗失败或中毒。如果有必要改变饮食,应逐渐(至少5天)进行,并在改变饮食后监测血清溴化钾浓度,特别是当犬出现镇静或意外抽搐发作时。在生化结果上,血清氯离子浓度经常被误认为升高(“假性高氯血症”),因为常规检查无法分辨氯离子和溴离子[123]。

<img data-src="
Warning: curl_setopt_array(): Unable to create temporary file. in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php on line 59
GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘851d3290f671a56…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘851d3290f671a56…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘851d3290f671a56…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘851d3290f671a56…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Pharmacokinetic interactions and adverse effects

药代动力学和副作用

Pharmacokinetic interactions of KBr are limited as KBr is not metabolized or protein-bound. The main interactions are associated with alterations in the renal excretion of KBr. As already mentioned, the rate of elimination of KBr varies proportionally and inversely to chloride intake. Loop diuretics such as furosemide may enhance KBr elimination by blocking KBr reabsorption through renal tubular chloride channels. KBr should be avoided in dogs with renal dysfunction to prevent toxicity secondary to reduced renal elimination [80].

溴化钾的药代动力学相互作用是有限的,因为溴化钾不代谢或蛋白质结合。主要的相互作用与肾排泄溴化钾的改变有关。如前所述,溴化钾的代谢与氯化物的摄入量成正比,与消除率成反比。循环利尿剂如速尿可通过阻断溴化钾经由肾小管氯离子通道的重吸收来加快溴化钾的消除。肾功能不全犬应避免使用溴化钾,以避免肾脏清除减少引起的中毒[80]。

<img data-src="
Warning: curl_setopt_array(): Unable to create temporary file. in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php on line 59
GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘a16a21e3e01843b…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘a16a21e3e01843b…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘a16a21e3e01843b…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘a16a21e3e01843b…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Common, dose-dependent adverse effects of KBr in dogs include sedation, ataxia and pelvic limb weakness, polydipsia/polyuria, and polyphagia with weight gain [4, 25, 46, 124] (Table 1). These effects occur in the initial weeks of treatment and may be magnified by concurrent PB administration. These adverse effects subside (partly or completely), once KBr steady-state concentrations are reached [125]. Gastrointestinal irritation and clinical signs can be prevented or minimized by administering Br with food and dividing the daily dose into 2 or more doses [4]. Uncommon idiosyncratic reactions of KBr in dogs include personality changes (aggressive behaviour, irritability, hyperactivity), persistent cough, increased risk of pancreatitis and megaoesofagus [4, 46, 67, 106] (Table 1). KBr may cause skin problems (bromoderma) in humans [106], but no reports exist currently in dogs. For an indepth review on the adverse effects of Br the reader is referred to comprehensive book chapters [23, 32, 91].

溴化钾对犬常见的剂量依赖性不良反应包括镇静、共济失调和后肢无力、多饮/多尿和食欲亢进伴体重增加[4, 25, 46, 124] (表 1)。这些反应发生在治疗的最初几周,并可能因同时苯巴比妥的给药而反应增大。一旦达到溴化钾的稳态浓度,这些不良反应就会(部分或完全)消退[125]。与食物一起给药并将每日剂量分成2次或更多次服用,可避免或减少胃肠道刺激和临床症状[4]。溴化钾在犬中不常见的特殊反应包括性格改变(攻击行为、易怒、多动)、持续咳嗽、胰腺炎和巨食道的风险增加 [4, 46, 67, 106] (表 1)。溴化钾可能在人类中引起皮肤问题(溴疹)[106],但目前还没有关于犬类的报道。要深入了解溴的副作用,读者可以参考书籍的综合章节[23,32,91]。

<img data-src="
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GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘e6954fb6e571d61…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘e6954fb6e571d61…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘e6954fb6e571d61…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘e6954fb6e571d61…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Dose and monitoring (Fig. 3)

剂量与监测(图 3)

The recommended oral starting dose of KBr is 15 mg/kg BID when used as an add-on drug. An oral dose of 20 mg/kg BID is advised when used as a monotherapy. Because of the long elimination half-life, KBr can be administered once daily (preferably in the evening), however, twice daily dosing as well as administration with food can help to prevent gastrointestinal mucosa irritation [123]. Twice daily dosing is also recommended if excessive sedation is present. Therapeutic ranges have been reported as approximately 1000 mg/l to 2000 mg/l when administered in conjunction with PB and 2000mg/l to 3000mg/l when administered alone [126]. Br has a long half-life, consequently, reaching a steady-state serum concentration may require several months (approximately 3 months). Due to this long half-life, timing of blood sample collection relative to oral administration is not critical [123].

当作为辅助药物使用时,溴化钾的推荐口服起始剂量为15 mg/kg BID。单药治疗时,建议20mg/kg BID 口服。由于清除半衰期长,溴化钾可以每天给药一次(最好在晚上),然而,每天两次给药以及与食物一起给药可以帮助防止胃肠道粘膜刺激[123]。如果出现过度镇静,也建议每天服用两次。据报道,与苯巴比妥联合使用时,治疗性血药浓度范围约为1000 mg/L至2000mg/L,单药治疗使用时约为2000 mg/L至3000 mg/L[126]。溴有很长的半衰期,因此,达到稳定的血清浓度可能需要几个月(大约3个月)。由于半衰期很长,口服给药后的采血时机无关紧要[123]。

<img data-src="
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GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘8fe5cb8fc272136…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘8fe5cb8fc272136…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘8fe5cb8fc272136…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘8fe5cb8fc272136…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Baseline complete blood cell count, biochemical profile (including cholesterol and triglycerides) should be performed before starting KBr treatment and periodically every 6 months during treatment. Serum KBr concentrations should be monitored 3 months after treatment initiation (or dose change). In the long term, in dogs with adequate seizure control, serum KBr concentrations should be monitored every 6 months. If the dog is in remission or has no seizures, a periodical control every 12 months is advised.

应在开始溴化钾治疗前进行基线全血细胞计数、生化检查(包括胆固醇和甘油三酯),并在治疗期间每6个月检查一次。应在治疗开始(或剂量改变)的3个月后监测血清溴化钾浓度。从长期来看,对于抽搐控制良好的犬,应每6个月监测一次血清溴化钾浓度。如果犬的情况得到缓解或没有抽搐发作,建议每12个月检测一次。

<img data-src="
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GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘ea9be96d75a9986…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘ea9be96d75a9986…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘ea9be96d75a9986…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘ea9be96d75a9986…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

A loading dose may be recommended to achieve steady state therapeutic concentrations more rapidly (e.g. in dogs with frequent or severe seizures, or when PB must be rapidly discontinued because of life-threatening adverse effects). Different protocols have been reported. Oral loading can be performed by administering KBr at a dose of 625 mg/kg given over 48h and divided into eight or more doses. A more gradual loading can be accomplished giving 125 mg/kg/day divided in three to four daily administrations for 5 consecutive days. Daily phone contact with the owners is advised. Loading can be associated with adverse effects (e.g. nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, sedation, ataxia and pelvic limb weakness, polydipsia, polyuria and polyphagia) and the dog should be hospitalized if loading takes place over 48h (7,85). It is advised to stop loading when serious adverse effects occur. Consider that dogs in which KBr is used as adjunct AED to PB may be more prone to adverse effects. In these cases, a PB dose decrease of 25 % may be needed. Serum KBr levels should be monitored 1 month after loading.

为了更快地达到稳定的治疗性血药浓度,可能会推荐使用负荷剂量(例如,频繁或严重抽搐发作的犬,或者由于苯巴比妥的危及生命的不良反应必须迅速停药时)。多篇文献报道了各种方案。溴化钾以 625 mg/kg,48小时内,分为8次或8次以上口服。一个更渐进的负荷剂量可以以 125 mg/kg/天,分三到四次,连续5天给药。建议每天与主人电话联系。负荷剂量可能会出现相关不良反应(如恶心、呕吐、腹泻、镇静、共济失调和后肢无力、多饮、多尿和食欲亢进),如果负荷剂量超过48小时,犬应该住院观察(7,85)。出现严重不良反应时,建议停止给药。考虑到使用溴化钾作为以苯巴比妥治疗的犬的辅助抗癫痫药物时,可能更容易出现不良反应。在这种情况下,可能需要减少25%的苯巴比妥剂量。用药后1个月监测血清溴化钾水平。

<img data-src="
Warning: curl_setopt_array(): Unable to create temporary file. in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php on line 59
GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘925f632c66874f7…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘925f632c66874f7…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘925f632c66874f7…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘925f632c66874f7…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Dose increases can be calculated according to the following formula
Formula B:
For concomitant PB and KBr treatment, the new maintenance dose can be calculated as follows:
(2000 mg/l ‐ actual serum KBr steady‐state concentration )×0.02
= mg/kg/day added to existing dose
Formula C:
In case of monotherapy KBr, the new maintenance dose can be calculated as follows:
(2500 mg/l – actual serum KBr steady-state concentration)
×0.02 =mg/kg/day added to existing dose

剂量增加可按下式计算

公式B:
对于同时使用苯巴比妥和溴化钾治疗的,新的维持剂量可计算如下:
(2000 mg/L – 实际血清溴化钾稳态浓度)×0.02 = 在现有剂量基础上添加的mg/kg/天

公式C:
在溴化钾单药治疗的病例,新的维持剂量可以计算如下:
(2500 mg/L – 实际血清溴化钾稳态浓度)×0.02 = 在现有剂量基础上添加的mg/kg/天

<img data-src="
Warning: curl_setopt_array(): Unable to create temporary file. in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php on line 59
GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘c8ddc1b5834dd50…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘c8ddc1b5834dd50…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘c8ddc1b5834dd50…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘c8ddc1b5834dd50…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

Only PB and imepitoin are approved as first-line treatment of canine epilepsy in the EU. In most EU countries, KBr is only approved as add-on treatment in dogs resistant to first-line treatments. None of the drugs discussed in the following section are approved for treatment of dogs with epilepsy, thus, according to EU drug laws, these drugs can only be used as adjunctive treatment if monotherapy or polytherapy with the approved treatments have failed. Furthermore, except for levetiracetam, none of the AEDs discussed in the following section have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials in epileptic dogs, so that the evidence for their efficacy is very limited [17].

在欧盟,只有苯巴比妥和伊匹妥因获批作为犬癫痫的一线治疗药物。在大多数欧盟国家,溴化钾只被批准作为对一线用药有耐药性的犬的辅助治疗。下一节中讨论的药物都没有获批用于治疗犬的癫痫,因此,根据欧盟药物法案,如果合法的单一疗法或多药疗法都失败了,这些药物只能作为辅助治疗。此外,除左乙拉西坦外,下一节讨论的抗癫痫药物均未在癫痫犬的随机对照试验中进行评估,因此其相关疗效的证据非常有限[17]。

<img data-src="
Warning: curl_setopt_array(): Unable to create temporary file. in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php on line 59
GuzzleHttp\Exception\RequestException: cURL error 0: The connection unexpectedly failed without providing an error. The request would have been retried, but attempting to rewind the request body failed. Exception: RuntimeException: Stream is not seekable in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php:204
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\psr7\src\Stream.php(193): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->seek(0)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(517): GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream->rewind()
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘803b349a698e86c…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#22 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘803b349a698e86c…’)
#23 {main} (see https://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/libcurl-errors.html) in C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php:201
Stack trace:
#0 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(524): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::createRejection(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#1 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(152): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::retryFailedRewind(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Array)
#2 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlFactory.php(105): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finishError(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#3 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(201): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory::finish(Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\EasyHandle), Object(GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlFactory))
#4 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(130): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->processMessages()
#5 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\guzzle\src\Handler\CurlMultiHandler.php(145): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->tick()
#6 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Handler\CurlMultiHandler->execute(true)
#7 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#8 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#9 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(226): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitList()
#10 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#11 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(67): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait()
#12 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(248): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->GuzzleHttp\Promise\{closure}(true)
#13 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(224): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->invokeWaitFn()
#14 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Promise.php(62): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->waitIfPending()
#15 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\promises\src\Coroutine.php(103): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Promise->wait(true)
#16 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(77): GuzzleHttp\Promise\Coroutine->wait()
#17 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\vendor\guzzlehttp\command\src\ServiceClient.php(153): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->execute(Object(GuzzleHttp\Command\Command))
#18 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(269): GuzzleHttp\Command\ServiceClient->__call(‘PutObject’, Array)
#19 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\src\Client.php(321): Qcloud\Cos\Client->__call(‘putObject’, Array)
#20 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(36): Qcloud\Cos\Client->upload(‘chonwuleyuan-12…’, ‘803b349a698e86c…’, Object(GuzzleHttp\Psr7\Stream))
#21 C:\wwwroot\upimg.chonwuleyuan.com\getcos.php(10): upload(‘http://i0.hdslb…’, ‘803b349a698e86c…’)
#22 {main}” width=”1235″ height=”46″>

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